Taj Mahal, a mausoleum built on the southern bank of the Yamuna river, outside Agra in India. It was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal whose real name was Arjumand banu beagum. She died in a child birth in Bhuranpur in 1631 A.D. They got married in 1612 A.D the building was planned to be built in 1632 A.D. It was built by a group of men from India, Persia, Central asia,and beyond. About 20,000 workman were employed daily to complete the complex at the expense of 40,000,000 rupees.
The complex consist of a rectangular plot measuring 1,902 feet x 1,002 feet on each side, bounded on north and south by two oblong sections. The southern oblong has a sand stone gateway to the complex while the northern oblong section terminates at the Yamuna’s edge directly to the mausoleum. The mausoleum is on the west and east by two symmetrically identical buildings, the mosque and the Jawab respectively.
The whole Taj complex was conceived as an entity because Mughal building architecture allowed no amendment in them. The mosque and Jawab of the Red Sikiri sand stone and some pietra duta (hard stone )surface decoration ,contrast in color and texture with the mausoleum of pure white marble. The mausoleum stands on a marble plinth 23 feet high and has four identical faces with a chamfered corner and a massive arch of height 108 feet on each face. Parapets create the skyline rhythm of the mausoleum over each arch and by pinnacle and domed kiosks on each corner.
The Islamic building activity of Shah Jahan period is marked by fresh emergence in India with Persian features that had been seen in the Humayun tomb at Delhi, began in 1564. The Taj Mahal has won a good praise virtually from the time of the erection. The beauty not only lies in its parts but also in the beauty that is seen when viewed from any angle near the complex. The marble surface reflects continuously sunlight during the daytime. All the resources of the emperor was put into the construction of the complex. In addition to the mausoleum the complex includes a wide variety of accessories building parts that gives the building a great appearance. The mausoleum rises on the four sides of the complex and gives it a great appearance.
The mausoleum of the Taj Mahal is a large impressive sceptural monument. The word is derived from the word mausols, which is a word of the ruler of caria, in memory of his dead wife. the most impressive mausoleum present now is the taj complex only .
The emperor wanted to build a black mausoleum opposite to the marble complex but unfortunately before he could finish it. Lord Curzon said the complex as “ triumphal “ on his return from India as the viceroy. He took a personal interest in renovation of the Indian art and architectural monuments. Diamonds and precious stones were depicted on the walls and all were lost during the course of time.